Consider the problem of making change using pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters (i.e. coin values 1, 5, 10, 25).
Give a greedy algorithm (in pseudocode) which, for any specified number of cents, makes that amount of change with as few coins as possible. (1 point)
The aforementioned greedy algorithm works fine in the U.S, but it doesn't necessarily work with other coin values. Give an example of a set of coin values for which the aforementioned greedy algorithm does not choose the fewest possible coins. (1 point)
Extra credit: What properties of a set of coin values would guarantee that the greedy algorithm works? (2 more points)
Write and analyze an algorithm which, given two numbers a and n, computes an. You may assume that n is a non-negative integer. A brute-force approach to this takes O(n) time; give me a significantly more efficient solution. (2 points)
You are given a board with n holes of various sizes drilled in it, and n bolts to be inserted into them. You are guaranteed that there is a bolt exactly matching the size of each hole, but none of the bolts or holes are labelled, and you don't have a measuring device, nor any way to compare two holes or two pegs together. The only thing you can do is try a peg in a hole to learn whether it's too large, too small, or just right.
Give an algorithm to match each bolt to the appropriate hole, in time O(n log(n)). (3 points)
An electronic chip is designed in such a manner that any two chips can be connected to test one another; each chip reports whether the other one is good or bad. A good chip always reports correctly whether the other chip is good or bad, but a bad chip's report cannot be trusted. Thus there are four possible outcomes:
|Chip A says||Chip B says||Conclusion|
|B is good||A is good||Either both are good, or both are bad|
|B is good||A is bad||A (and possibly B) is bad|
|B is bad||A is good||B (and possibly A) is bad|
|B is bad||A is bad||At least one is bad|
Implement, test, and debug either the coin-changing algorithm or the fast-exponentiation algorithm (from above) in a real programming language.
The part of the program that does the real work should be callable from other parts of the program, e.g. with known test cases or to actually use the results for some other purpose.